The Company performed a quantitative assessment for the reporting units in the following table. The Company determined the fair value of these reporting units using primarily an income approach. Under the income approach, the Company estimated the fair value of the reporting units' invested capital exceeds its carrying value and, as such, the Company concluded that goodwill associated with the reporting units in the following table is not impaired as of December 31, 2017:
% Fair Value Over Carrying Value
Midwest Generation (Generation Segment)
Texas Non-Commodity - excluding Goal Zero (Retail Segment)
Goal Zero (Retail Segment)
The Company believes the methodology and assumptions used in its quantitative assessment are consistent with the views of market participants. Significant inputs to the determination of fair value were as follows:
The Company applied a discounted cash flow methodology to the long-term budgets for all of the plants in the region. The significant assumptions used to derive the long-term budgets used in the income approach are affected by the following key inputs:
The Company's views of power and fuel prices consider market prices for the first five-year period and the Company's fundamental view for the longer term, which reflect the Company's long-term view of the price of natural gas. The Company's fundamental view for the longer term reflects the implied power price and heat rate that would support new build of a combined cycle gas plant. The price of natural gas plays an important role in setting the price of electricity in many of the regions where NRG operates power plants. Hedging is included to the extent of contracts already in place;
The Company's estimate of generation, fuel costs, capital expenditure requirements and the existing and anticipated impact of environmental regulations;
The Company's fundamental view for the longer term, cash flows for the plants in the region were included in the fair value calculation through the end of each plants' estimated useful life; and
Projected generation and resulting energy gross margin in the long-term budgets is based on an hourly dispatch that simulates dispatch of each unit into the power market. The dispatch simulation is based on power prices, fuel prices, and the physical and economic characteristics of each plant.
The Company applied a discounted cash flow methodology to the long-term budgets for the Texas Non-Commodity and Goal Zero reporting units. The significant assumptions used to derive the long-term budgets used in the income approach are affected by the following key inputs: a terminal value utilizing assumed growth rates and discount rates that reflect the inherent cash flow risk for each reporting unit.
During the fourth quarter of 2017, the Company concluded that BETM was held for sale in connection with board approval and advanced negotiations to sell the business. Accordingly, the Company recorded the assets and liabilities at fair market value as of December 31, 2017, which resulted in an impairment loss of $90 million to record BETM's goodwill at fair market value.
During the fourth quarter of 2017, NRG sold its interests in certain SPP projects to NRG Yield. The goodwill recorded during the SPP acquisition was related primarily to its development pipeline, which was not sold to NRG Yield. As the Company does not expect to separately develop these projects and accordingly, has no cash flow stream associated with the goodwill, an impairment loss of $12 million was recorded to reduce the value to zero as of December 31, 2017.
Fair value determinations require considerable judgment and are sensitive to changes in underlying assumptions and factors. As a result, there can be no assurance that the estimates and assumptions made for purposes of the annual goodwill impairment test will prove to be accurate predictions of the future.
NRG records reserves for estimated losses from contingencies when information available indicates that a loss is probable and the amount of the loss, or range of loss, can be reasonably estimated. Gain contingencies are not recorded until management determines it is certain that the future event will become or does become a reality. Such determinations are subject to interpretations of current facts and circumstances, forecasts of future events, and estimates of the financial impacts of such events. NRG describes in detail its contingencies in Item 15 — Note 22, Commitments and Contingencies, to the consolidated financial statements.